Ginger’s scientific name is Zingiber officinale Rosc and belongs to Family: Zingiberaceae is a herbaceous continuing, the rhizomes used as a spice. India is a foremost producer of ginger in the world, and through 2012 – 13 the country provided 7.45 lakh tonnes of the seasoning from an area of 157839 hectares. Ginger raised in most of the states in India. However, states, particularly Karnataka, Orissa, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat, provide 65 per cent of the country’s total stock.
Climate and Soil Requirement For Ginger
Ginger develops well in a warm and humid climate and grown from sea level to 1500 m over sea level. Ginger can grown both under rainfed and irrigated conditions. For successful crop cultivation, a moderate rainfall at sowing time till the rhizomes sprout, relatively heavy and well-distributed showers during the developing time and dry weather for about a month before collection required. Ginger grows best in well-drained soils like light loam, clay loam, red loam or lateritic loam. However, being an exhausting crop, planting ginger in the same soil year after year is unacceptable.
Several cultivars of ginger produced in different ginger growing areas in India. Some of the leading indigenous cultivars are Maran, Kuruppampadi, Ernad, Wayanad, Himachal and Nadia. The exotic cultivar ‘Rio – de – Janeiro’ has also become very popular among cultivators. The improved varieties of ginger and their salient features given below. IISR Varada suited for fresh ginger, dry ginger, and making candy, while IISR Rejatha is rich in essential oil.
The land ploughed 4 to 5 times or dug thoroughly with early summer showers to bring the soil to a fine tilth. Beds of 1 m diameter, 30 cm length, and convenient length prepared with an inter-space of 50 cm between beds. In the case of the watered crop, ridges formed 40 cm distant. In areas prone to rhizome rot disease and nematode infestations, solar mattresses for 40 days using transparent polythene sheets recommended. By John Deere 5310, tractor preparation of land is done quickly.
Ginger is cultivated as a rainfed crop in high rainfall areas (uniform distribution for 5 to 7 months) and in more minor rainfall areas where distribution is inconsistent. Ginger requires 1300-1500 mm of water during its crop cycle. Therefore, the first irrigation should done immediately after planting. The subsequent watering should given at 7 to 10 days in conventional irrigation (based on prevailing weather and soil type). Sprinklers and drip systems can also memployed for better water use efficiency and enhanced yield.
Though removing ginger is not conventional, it is found profitable. The yield level of ginger transplants is on-par with the traditional system of planting. The method involves raising operations from single sprout root rhizomes in the pro – tray and planting in the field after 30 – 40 days.
- The advantages of this technology are:
- The result of suitable planting materials.
- Decrease in seed rhizome quantity.
- Finally, reduce the cost of sources.
The best time for starting ginger on the West Coast of India is through the opening fortnight of May, with the release of pre-monsoon rains. However, it can produced well in advance during the middle of February or early March under irrigated conditions. Early planting with the arrival of summer showers results in greater yield and decreases disease incidence.
Weeding done just before manure and mulching; 2-3 hand weddings needed depending on the severity of weed growth. Proper drainage tubes are to be provided when there is stagnation of water. Earthing up is necessary to prevent the disclosure of rhizomes and provide sufficient soil volume for the free development of rhizomes. done 45 and 90 days after planting, immediately after weeding and application of fertilizers.
At the time of planting, well-composted cattle manure or compost 25-30 tonnes/ha has to applied either broadcasting over the beds before planting or involved in the pits at the time of planting. 2 tonnes/ha at the time of planting helps reduce the incidence of rhizome rot disease/ nematode and increase the yield. The recommended blanket nutrient dosage for ginger for different states given below.
Harvesting of ginger for vegetable plans starts after 180 days based on the demand. However, the matured rhizomes picked at full maturity for making dry ginger, i.e. when the leaves turn yellow and start drying. In large scale cultivations, tractors or power tiller drawn harvesters also used. The dry leaves, roots and soil adhering to the rhizomes manually separated. Late harvest also prepared, as the crop does not deteriorate by leaving it for some months underground. In India, the domestic market prefers fresh green ginger for culinary use, while two types of dried ginger, i.e. bleached and unbleached, designed for export purposes. Its state of maturity governs the relative abundance of these three components in the fresh rhizome at harvest. For harvesting purposes, the Eicher 380 tractor model is suitable for farming requirements.
Stay connected to us for more related blogs.