Groundnuts are a legume that originated in South America. Groundnut also known as peanuts. Peanuts are excellent in protein, fat, and various healthy nutrients. Groundnuts Cultivation is growing mostly in five states: Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, etc.
Description:- Groundnut is a tender perennial commonly grow as an annual member of the legume family. Farmers grow the groundnut plant 6 to 30 inches (15-76 cm.). Groundnut plants depend on the type; Some are straight and straight inhabit, and others spread out. The plants produce two sets of opposite leaves on each stem and yellow, sweet-pea-like, self-pollinating flowers. The flowers are on tall, pea-like stems just above the soil, and after pollination, they dip and push 1 to 3 inches (1.5–7 cm) into the ground to develop underground seed tips called pegs or peduncles. These are the seed pods that we call groundnuts.
Note:- Groundnut cultivation and almost every farming require equipment, which plays a significant role in agriculture processing. Tools, harvesters, and tractors are the main ones in the cultivation of Groundnut; Hence, we suggest the Massey 245 tractor, which is better for increasing efficiency in farming.
Types of Groundnuts
There are four types of groundnuts:
Runners:- The runner type has uniform medium-sized seeds, usually two seeds per pod, growing from a low shrub. Runner types are ready for harvesting 130 to 150 days after planting. The similar size of the seeds makes them a good substitute for roasting (often used as beer nuts) and groundnut butter. Runner types are grow in Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Oklahoma, and Texas. Groundnut is beneficial to our skin.
The Spanish:- The Spanish type has small, round seeds covered with reddish-brown skin, which grow on a low shrub. These types are ready to harvest 120 days from planting. The Spanish groundnut has a high oil content and used for oil, groundnut butter, and snacks. Spanish groundnuts are commonly grow in Oklahoma, Texas, and South Africa.
Virginia:- This type of groundnut cultivation has the largest seed of the four types of groundnuts also the seeds are most often roasting. There are usually two and sometimes three seeds per pod. Virginia-type groundnuts grow 24 inches (61 cm) long and 30 inches (76 cm) wide and are ready for harvesting 130 to 150 days after harvesting. These groundnuts are grow mostly from southeastern Virginia to northeastern North Carolina.
Valencia:- The Valencia type of groundnut cultivation contains three to six small oval seeds in each pod and also each seed is covered with bright-red skin. This type of groundnut is often roasted in the shell or boiled fresh and is often used in confections and cocktails. Plants grow about 50 inches (127 cm) across and spread to about 30 inches (76 cm). Almost all of the pods are clustered around the plant’s base. The Valencia variety is ready for harvest 95 to 100 days after planting. Most Valencia groundnuts are grown in New Mexico.
Site:- Plant the groundnut in full sun. Groundnuts grow best in loose, well-draining soil rich in organic matter. Dig up the clay soil twice and add gypsum and aged compost. You should use loose soil so that the pegs can penetrate and grow. Groundnut prefers a soil pH of 5.8 to 6.2.
Planting time:- Groundnut is a warm-season perennial vegetable requiring 120 – 130 frost-free days to harvest. Sow groundnut 3 – 4 weeks after the last frost date in spring in the garden. You need warm soil of at least 65°F (18°C). Start groundnuts indoors 5 to 8 weeks before transplanting them outdoors to start the season. Groundnuts require growing days to have an air temperature greater than 85°F (29°C).
Planting and spacing:-
Sow groundnuts or the seed’s scaly skin in the whole shell. Sow seed 1½ to 3 inches (4-7 cm.) deep. Plant seeds 6 to 8 inches (15-20 cm) apart. Thin, successful plants or seedlings 18 inches (45 cm) apart.
Plant the groundnuts in double rows to save space, spacing the seeds 18 inches (45 cm) apart. Single rows may be spaced 12 to 24 inches (30–61 cm) apart. When the plants are 12 inches (30 cm.) tall, mound the soil around the base of the plant so that the faded flowers can set the pegs down on the hill. To start the season, start groundnuts indoors in individual biodegradable peat or paper pots that can be set throughout the garden.
Caring for Groundnuts
Water and feed:- Groundnuts like to watered regularly. Farmers should choose the moist soil until the plant begins to flower, then waterless. Once the plant established, allow the soil to dry out between waterings. Empty pods, sometimes called “blind” pods, result from too much rain or moisture at the time of flowering. Prepare a planting bed with aged manure; groundnuts, like other legumes, supply their nitrogen.
Along with farming process information, you should also consider the better equipment in farming, so choose such a tractor that is effective in agriculture. So you can choose the Mahindra 245 tractor as the best tractor. Likewise, you can also choose the Mahindra 475 tractor.
For more information regarding groundnut farming in India, stay tuned with us.